Many women have experienced an unplanned pregnancy and approximately 60% of these women may have been using contraception at the time. Is there a chance you may not be using your contraception as effectively as you can?
Or maybe you don’t know all the different types of contraception available and are still relying on methods that may not be as effective.
Note: No method of contraception can give you 100% protection against pregnancy, HIV or sexually transmitted infections.
What types of contraception are available?
There are many different types of hormonal and non-hormonal contraceptives available, and choosing which birth control method is best for you can be difficult. Marie Stopes National Clinical Advisor Jill Michelson highly recommends couples seek professional advice and the best contraception which suits them.
“It’s vital that women take the time to have a dedicated contraception check-up with their GP, local family planning clinic” she says, “and make sure they are using a form of contraception that they feel comfortable with and is best for their needs.”
Most of us (in fact, more than 95%, according to Marie Stope’s study) are aware of The Pill. But what many couples don’t know is that you can’t afford to mess with the regularity of taking it. Three hours too late with the mini Pill or 12 hours late with the combined Pill, and the Pill’s normally 98% effectiveness can be drastically lowered.
- Best for: organised women who will remember to take the Pill every day.
- Steer clear: if you travel a lot or have a bad memory.
- Need to know: there are many different types of combined Pill and some may give you some side effects (like nausea, headaches and weight gain), so it’s important to discuss your options with a doctor. If you’re breastfeeding you should take the mini Pill, not the combined.
This is a small, flexible plastic rod (about the size of a matchstick) that is inserted just under the skin, on the inside of the upper arm. It continuously releases a small amount of contraceptive hormone (progestogen) and can provide continuous protection for up to three years.
- Best for: women who want a few years without getting pregnant (although, a woman’s fertility usually returns within a cycle or two or removing the rod).
- Steer clear: if you are planning children close together.
- Need to know: some women do suffer from side-effects often associated with hormonal contraceptives, like weight gain, headaches and mood swings, although for women with heavy and painful periods, the implant can be a blessing.
The ring is a small, flexible plastic hormone-releasing ring which is inserted into the vagina and left there for three weeks. After a period is finished, a new ring is inserted. The best part is, it’s 99.3% effective plus as the hormones are released directly into the blood vessels in the vaginal wall, low levels of hormones are used.
- Best for: women who don’t want the hassle of the Pill but are still organised enough to remember to remove and replace regularly.
- Steer clear: if you don’t want to watch the calendar for each three-week cycle.
- Need to know: Insertion may be awkward at first. However, since the vaginal ring is not a barrier method, incorrect insertion is not usually a problem.
A hormonal injection provides a longer-acting alternative to the pill. It contains the hormone progestogen to prevent pregnancy and provides three months’ coverage.
- Best for: women who aren’t planning babies in the next 18 or so months because even though it is only effective for three months, it can delay the return of normal fertility for about 18 months.
- Steer clear: if you’re planning a baby in the next 18 months (see above).
- Need to know: If you have any side effects you may need to wait three months before they wear off. However, for women who suffer from heavy or painful periods, the injection can have beneficial effects
The IUS (also known as IUD)
The IUS is an intra-uterine system, which involves a small, plastic, hormone-releasing T-shaped device inserted by a doctor into the uterus. It can remain effective for up to five years and does not alter the course of future fertility – although it does need to be medically removed. It’s usually referred to as the Mirena in New Zealand.
- Best for: women who never want to think about contraception.
- Steer clear: if you like having a lot of control over your contraception.
- Need to know: The Mirena is useful for women with heavy, painful periods as it can make periods lighter, shorter and less painful.
Written by Her World’s relationship and sex editor
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